Pipeline projects are identified as export systems, infield flowline systems, and combined export and infield systems. The offshore pipeline network in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico is considered the largest and most transparent system in the world. Deepwater pipeline construction consist of submerged pipe which are made by joining a number of pipes together into a long string and then intentionally sunk into a desired location.
Pipelines must be flexible enough to withstand stress levels in the pipeline need to be within the defined specification throughout pipe-laying operations built to endure the movement of the sea currents and unexpected acts of nature. A ready way to increase the water depth utility for any pipe size is to employ the J-Lay method. This configuration reduces the stress at the top of the suspended pipe string by effectively eliminating bending at the top and by shortening the unsupported span.
This method also eliminates the need for tensioning devices which are used in S-Lay to avoid pipe structural failure. These pipe lines are also equipped with manual or hydraulically valves. All pipes shall be moved regularly during use, to ensure the pipeline life shall be extended.